The top 10 reasons website get hacked
1. Cross site scripting (XSS)
The “most prevalent and pernicious” Web application security vulnerability, XSS flaws happen when an application sends user data to a Web browser without first validating or encoding the content. This lets hackers execute malicious scripts in a browser, letting them hijack user sessions, deface Web sites, insert hostile content and conduct phishing and malware attacks.
2. Injection flaws
When user-supplied data is sent to interpreters as part of a command or query, hackers trick the interpreter — which interprets text-based commands — into executing unintended commands. “Injection flaws allow attackers to create, read, update, or delete any arbitrary data available to the application,” OWASP writes. “In the worst-case scenario, these flaws allow an attacker to completely compromise the application and the underlying systems, even bypassing deeply nested firewalled environments.”
3. Malicious file execution
Hackers can perform remote code execution, remote installation of rootkits, or completely compromise a system. Any type of Web application is vulnerable if it accepts filenames or files from users. The vulnerability may be most common with PHP, a widely used scripting language for Web development.
4. Insecure direct object reference
Attackers manipulate direct object references to gain unauthorized access to other objects. It happens when URLs or form parameters contain references to objects such as files, directories, database records or keys.
5. Cross site request forgery
“Simple and devastating,” this attack takes control of victim’s browser when it is logged onto a Web site, and sends malicious requests to the Web application. Web sites are extremely vulnerable, partly because they tend to authorize requests based on session cookies or “remember me” functionality. Banks are potential targets.
6. Information leakage and improper error handling
Error messages that applications generate and display to users are useful to hackers when they violate privacy or unintentionally leak information about the program’s configuration and internal workings.
7. Broken authentication and session management
The problem: User and administrative accounts can be hijacked when applications fail to protect credentials and session tokens from beginning to end. Watch out for privacy violations and the undermining of authorization and accountability controls.
8. Insecure cryptographic storage
The problem: Many Web developers fail to encrypt sensitive data in storage, even though cryptography is a key part of most Web applications. Even when encryption is present, it’s often poorly designed, using inappropriate ciphers.
9. Insecure communications
Similar to No. 8, this is a failure to encrypt network traffic when it’s necessary to protect sensitive communications. Attackers can access unprotected conversations, including transmissions of credentials and sensitive information. For this reason, PCI standards require encryption of credit card information transmitted over the Internet.
10. Failure to restrict URL access
Some Web pages are supposed to be restricted to a small subset of privileged users, such as administrators. Yet often there’s no real protection of these pages, and hackers can find the URLs by making educated guesses. Say a URL refers to an ID number such as “123456.” A hacker might say ‘I wonder what’s in 123457?’ Williams says.